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Please sign in to add to folders. Upgrade to Cram Premium Close. Upgrade Cancel. Study your flashcards anywhere! How to study your flashcards. Play button. Card Range To Study through. Which of the following is not a major role of hormones? Growth stimulation b. Erythrocyte synthesis c. Fluid balance and regulation d.
Metabolic rate regulation. The release of hormones from glands is most often controlled by : a. Negative feedback mechanisms b. Nephrogenic mechanisms c. Ectopic hormone production d. Active transport.To login with Google, please enable popups.
Log in. Attacks bacterial cell membranes. What is the role of eosinophils in regulating vascular mediators released from mast cells? Eosinophils release arylsulfatase B that stimulates the formation of B lymphocytes. Eosinophils release histaminase that limits the effects of histamine during acute inflammation.
Eosinophils release lysosomal enzymes that activate mast cell degranulation during acute inflammation. Eosinophils release immunoglobulin E that defends the body against parasites. Eosinophil lysosomes contain several enzymes that degrade vasoactive molecules, thereby controlling the vascular effects of inflammation.
These enzymes include histaminase, which mediates the degradation of histamine, and arylsulfatase B, which mediates the degradation of some of the lipid-derived mediators produced by mast cells. Platelet Activating Factor. The biologic activity of PAF is virtually identical to that of leukotrienes, namely causing endothelial cell retraction to increase vascular permeability, leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and platelet activation. Without IL-2 production, the T cell cannot efficiently mature into a functional helper cell.
Type I reactions are mediated by antigen-specific IgE and the products of tissue mast cells. Most common allergies e. In addition, most type I reactions occur against environmental antigens and are therefore allergic.
IgE is a special class of antibody that is designed to protect the body from large parasitic worms. Another important activity of histamine is enhancement of the chemotactic activity of other factors, such as eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis ECF-Awhich attracts eosinophils into sites of allergic inflammatory reactions and prevents them from migrating out of the inflammatory site. Acting through the H 1 receptors, histamine contracts bronchial smooth muscles, causing bronchial constriction; increases vascular permeability, causing edema; and causes vasodilation, increasing blood flow into the affected area.
The neutrophil granules, as well as the several toxic oxygen products produced by these cells, damage the tissue. In a type II hypersensitivity reaction, when soluble antigens from infectious agents enter circulation, tissue damage is a result of:. The components of neutrophil granules, as well as the several toxic oxygen products produced by these cells, damage the tissue.To login with Google, please enable popups.
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Pathophysiology - Practice Exam Questions - Final
Already have an account? Log in. How is insulin used to treat hyperkalemia? Insulin transports potassium from the blood to the cell along with glucose. This promotes the movement of kcl to the liver and muscle cells.
Hyperaldosteronism causes which fluid and electrolyte imbalances? Hypokalemia, hypernatremia and fluid volume excess What mechanism cause hypernatremia?
Increase in plasma osmolality. Excessive use of magnesium and aluminum containing laxatives can result in. Metabolic Alkalosis which are indications of dehydration? Compensatory hyperplasia Which cell component is the most vulnerable target of radiation? DNA deoxyribonuleic acid Describe apoptosis An active process of cellular self-destruction called programed cell death in normal and pathologic tissue changes.
Water movement between the I travel luau compartment and the extracellular compartment is primarily a function of what?
Osmotic forces. What is a consequence of plasma membrane damage to the mitochondria Influx of calcium ions hope the ATP production this is related to many of the human aging diseases What is a consequence of leakage of lysosomal enzymes during chemical injury.
Influx of potassium ions into the mitochondria occurs halting the ATP production. Enzymatic digestion of cellular organelles hope the synthesis of DNA and RNA How does lead poisoning affect the nervous system It affect the development of neurobehavioral and intellectual performance learning disorders hyperactivity and attention problems led fine too so fire drill groups and mimics metals.
CHP is higher than cop Low plasma albumin cousin is Dima as a result of reduction in which pressure Decreased plasma oncotic pressure When thirst is experienced how are osmoreceptors activated Thirst is experienced when water loss equals 2 percent of an individual's body weight or when there is an increase of osmolality.Sign in. Don't have an account? We weren't able to detect the audio language on your flashcards.
Please select the correct language below. Add to folder [? Find out how you can intelligently organize your Flashcards. You have created 2 folders. Please upgrade to Cram Premium to create hundreds of folders! Specializes in synthesis and transport of the protein and lipid components of most of the cells organelles; also protein folding and sensing cell stress. A network of smooth membranes and vesicles located near the nucleus; processes and packages proteins into secretory vesicles.
H2o and Co2 diffusing readily across plasma membrane. Movement of a solute molecule from an area of greater solute concentration to an area of lesser solute concentration. Movement of H2o down a concentration gradient, across a semi-permible membrane from a regions of higher concentration to lower concentration.
The protein transporter moves molecules against, or up, the concentration gradient. Requires the expenditure of ATP and bigger molecules suchs a protein, ions, large cells, and complex sugars. A section of the plasma membrane enfolds substances from outside the cell, invaginates folds inwardand separates from the plasma membrane, forming a vesicle that moves into the cell.
Cell drinking; involves the ingestion of fluids and solute molecules through formation of small vesicles. Cell eating; involves the ingestion of large particles, such as bacteria, through formation of large molecules. Secretion of macromolecules; helps replace portions of the plasma membrane; also releases molecules synthesized by the cells into the ECF. A form of cellular communication; remote signaling by secreted molecules hormones in the blood to remote cells.
A form of cellular communication; secretion of local chemical mediators that are quickly taken up and immobilized. Contact signaling by plasma membrane molecules. A form of cellular communication; secretion of neurotransmitters at specialized junctions call the chemical synapse.
Contact signaling via specialized junctions. The second phase of cellular energy production, following digestion. A glucose molecule is split and two ATP molecules are formed through oxidation.You are contacted by an attorney representing a client who has been charged with child abuse and whom faces loss of her child and 15 years in prison.
The record indicated that the child was 4 years old and presented to the ER room with a broken arm and a broken leg. There also appeared to be multiple previous fractures. Now, you examine the child and find blue sclera, a sunken chest wall, severe scoliosis, and you observe a triangular face and prominent forehead. You confirm that there have been multiple previous fractures by evaluating the previous X-rays. This is a genetic disorder. The presenting genetic disease is most likely osteogenesis imperfecta OIalso known as brittle bone disease.
The Sillence classification system delineates OI based on the severity of the disease. Types I and IV are considered less severe forms, are characterized by inherited autosomal dominant trait, and the onset varies in age from childhood to adulthood McCance et al. The main characteristics of OI include low bone mass and elevated bone fragility that leads to fractures and deformities Golshani et al. The classic manifestations associated with OI are osteoporosis like and include an increased incidence of fractures, triangular facies, possible bony deformations, poor dentition, possible blue sclera, and possible vascular weaknesses McCance et al.
To fully understand the disease process, it is important to know what happens at the molecular level in regards to the biosynthesis of type 1 collagen. Both chains have C and N terminal peptides Golshani et al. These chains also have domains with repetitive amino acid sequence that contain glycine by every third amino acid, which permits the triple helix arrangement Golshani et al.
Once post-translational modifications and folding occurs, the procollagen molecule is carried to the extracellular matrix, cleavage of the terminal propeptides takes place, and the collagen molecule forms Golshani et al.
When the collagen molecule forms, it forms fibrils via covalent bonding inside and in the middle of triple helix molecules Golshani et al. Additionally, the fibrils formed will accumulate and produce type 1 collagen fibers Golshani et al. Upon examination, medical professionals may find evidence of bone fractures in various stages of healing, including fractures of the skull, metaphysis bones, and ribs, leading to the suspicion of child abuse Golshani et al.
While OI is rare, it should still be included in ones differential diagnosis Golshani et al. Evaluation and treatment of OI is established by the presence of clinical manifestations, therefore it is very important clinicians are able to recognize them McCance et al.Find Flashcards.
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Run Time: Price: Order Now. Margaret A. Fitzgerald and Dr. Sally K. Miller, who currently maintain clinical practice and thus bring practical clinical insights to the course, in addition to their expertise in pathophysiology.
This program is updated as needed to reflect current practice. Test questions are created using the Fitzgerald method and designed to help you grasp the material and discover areas that require further study. Advanced Pathology Course Topics Module 1. Cellular Pathophysiology Cell structure and function Mechanisms of cellular transport Membrane and action potentials Module 2. Pathophysiology of the Cardiovascular System Cardiac action potential Contractile tissue Non-contractile tissue Cardiac conduction Contractile fibers and the sarcomere Electromechanical coupling Cardiac muscle tasks Selected disorders Lipid synthesis and transport Selected dyslipidemias Module 7.
Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Disease Anatomy and physiology of airways Vascular and lymphatic anatomy Autonomic nervous system regulation Compliance and recoil Airflow and resistance Ventilation and perfusion Selected obstructive and restrictive diseases Module 9.RNSG 1311 Pathophysiology final exam
Pathophysiology in Reproduction Factors influencing impaired female fertility Factors influencing impaired male infertility Pathophysiologic problems encountered in pregnancy: Recurrent pregnancy loss, pregnancy induced hypertension, placental disorders, others Receive 4.
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