If you are new to buying softwood and hardwood lumber for craft projects or home improvement work, one of the first things you notice is that the dimensions by which the wood is sold called the nominal measurements are not the same as the actual measurements. All of this can make things rather confusing when you are buying lumber to make a project to precise dimensions. The reasons why the nominal dimension of this lumber what the lumber is called is larger than the actual dimensions involves historical practices in the lumber industry.
The old standard of calling this board a 2 x 4 still remains, even though in today's lumber practices, the board has never been 2 x 4 inches in size. The actual vs. Shrinkage is more pronounced laterally across the grain than it is longitudinally with the grainso a board sold as an 8-foot 2 x 4 is generally very close to the full 8 feet in length.
The sizing standards used for hardwood lumber such as oak, maple, birch, and mahogany of the type used in fine cabinetry and furniture is a bit more confusing. Not only are different measurement standards used, but the sizing also depends on whether the stock is surfaced on one side S1S or on two sides S2S.
Hardwoods are rarely sold in standard dimensions the way softwoods are. Instead, suppliers generally sell hardwoods in a unit of volume known as the board foot. One board foot is equal to cubic inches of wood. In other words, a board that is 1 inch thick, and 12 inches wide and long contains one board foot of hardwood lumber.
Additionally, hardwood may be sold in quarters. Plywood is usually sold in 4 x 8-foot sheets. Plywood is graded so that each face receives a grade of A, B, C, or D, with A representing the smoothest sanded finish. For example, AA plywood has a furniture-grade finish on both sides, while BC plywood will be graded B on one side and C on the other.
Related Topics. Read More.Store Locations Shop Online. Alf Curtis Home Improvements stores provide lumber that covers projects from foundation to roof, inside and out. Exterior wood siding, door trim, window trim, porches, decks and docks can be built with our quality lumber supplies.
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We also have interior trimdoors and hardwood floors to keep the lumber look consistent throughout your home. We aim to provide quality lumber with prompt delivery at a great value. No project is too large or small for our lumber teams.
We have the experience to help you build from your ideas and drawings. We carry various grades of dimensional, pressure treated and untreated lumber ranging in size from 2x4 to 2x12posts 4x4 and 6x6 and species cedar, pine and spruce.How to Build a Desk Organizer from a Single 1x3 Board
We also have strapping in 2x2, 1x3, 1x4 and 1x6 and stock a wide variety of western red cedar. Pressure treating helps wood withstand the elements and ward off insects and fungal decay. We supply engineered floor systems and pre-engineered beams for supporting roof and floor loads.
We can handle your simple LVL headers to your complex roof and floor systems. We can even design and build custom roof trusses for the residential, commercial and agricultural sectors. Skip Over Navigation Lumber. Clearance Products. Website Catalog. Dimensional Lumber We carry various grades of dimensional, pressure treated and untreated lumber ranging in size from 2x4 to 2x12posts 4x4 and 6x6 and species cedar, pine and spruce.
Pressure Treated Lumber Pressure treating helps wood withstand the elements and ward off insects and fungal decay. Engineered Wood We supply engineered floor systems and pre-engineered beams for supporting roof and floor loads.
Request A Quote. Vendor Links.Dimensional lumber is cut to a specific length, width, and depth.
Understanding Actual vs. Nominal Lumber Sizes
However, there is a difference between the nominal size what the lumber is referred to and the actual size. The tables below provide both the nominal and actual sizes so many common North American lumber sizes.
Softwood lumber is generally used for framing walls and floors. Hardwood lumber is sized based on how many sides are surfaced. Surfaced refers to a finishing process that smooths the lumber to remove all saw marks. In North America, hardwood lumber is usually specified using the quarter system, where a board is identified by its thickness in quarters of an inch. Hardwood board widths vary. In most cases, hardwood boards come in random widths to be ripped to size by the woodworker.
However, in some cases, like the big-box hardware stores, the boards come in dimensional widths similar to softwood widths. It is advisable to check with your contractor or lumber supplier before finalizing design details so you aren't surprised by what you receive. Standard widths are specified in the above publication, but can be customized as needed. A wide range of depths are available, far to many to list here, so please contact your local manufacturer for more information on their offerings - in general depths start at 6" and go up to 30" and beyond.
Of course, lengths are customized for each job. Best Architecture Books Our list of the top reference books for architects - these are the ones we have on our shelf. Dimensional Lumber Sizes: Nominal vs.
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Cutting Board Woods. Laser Engraving Woods. Project Packs - 20 BF. Hardwood Lumber Grades Explained. Woodworking Tips. Class Calendar. Board Foot Calculator. How to Estimate Your Lumber Needs. Project Planner free download. The Janka hardness test is the international standard for measuring the resistance of a sample of wood to denting and wear. It's expressed in psi, or pounds-per-square-inch.
The test measures the pressure required to embed an The measurement was developed to determine whether a species is suitable for use as flooring; however, we include it here and compare it to the rating of red oak to help you make a buying choice.
There is a difference between hardness and being difficult to work with.The following data is standard reference and size data for commercially available lumber within the USA. All data is in imperial units Inches. Dimension lumber can be purchased as dry or green. Individual pieces of lumber exhibit a wide range in quality and appearance with respect to knots, slope of grain, shakes and other natural characteristics.
Therefore, they vary considerably in strength, utility and value. The move to set national standards for lumber in the United States began with publication of the American Lumber Standard inwhich set specifications for lumber dimensions, grade, and moisture content; it also developed inspection and accreditation programs. These standards have changed over the years to meet the changing needs of manufacturers and distributors, with the goal of keeping lumber competitive with other construction products.
Design values for most species and grades of visually graded structural products are determined in accordance with ASTM standards, which consider the effect of strength reducing characteristics, load duration, safety and other influencing factors. A summary of the six published design values??? Canada has grading rules that maintain a standard among mills manufacturing similar woods to assure customers of uniform quality. Grades standardize the quality of lumber at different levels and are based on moisture content, size and manufacture at the time of grading, shipping and unloading by the buyer.
Attempts to maintain lumber quality over time have been challenged by historical changes in the timber resources of the United States??? Resulting declines in lumber quality have been of concern to both the lumber industry and consumers and have caused increased use of alternative construction products. Machine stress-rated and machine-evaluated lumber is readily available for end-uses where high strength is critical, such as truss rafters, laminating stock, I-beams and web joints.
Machine grading measures a characteristic such as stiffness or density that correlates with the structural properties of interest, such as bending strength. The result is a more precise understanding of the strength of each piece of lumber than is possible with visually graded lumber, which allows designers to use full-design strength and avoid overbuilding.
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They tell us how likely we would be to get differences between groups in our sample that are as large or larger than those we see, if there were no differences between the corresponding groups in the population represented by our sample. In other words, these numbers tell us how likely is our data, given the assumption that there are no differences in the population. What we want to know is how likely there are differences in the population, given our data. Logically, if we are sufficiently unlikely to get a difference found in our sample, if there were no difference in the population, then it is likely that there is a difference in the population.
We used this logic in the first part of this article when we said that you can interpret significance numbers by considering 1-p as the probability that there is a difference in the population (where p is the significance number produced by the program). For example, if the significance level is.
While this logic passes the common sense test, the mathematics behind statistical significance do not actually guarantee that 1-p gives the exact probability that there is a difference is the population. Even so, many researchers treat 1-p as that probability anyway for two reasons.
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